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How Does a Solar Photovoltaic System Work?

Views:87     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2019-12-06      Origin:Site



Solar photovoltaic system has great usage in both daily life and business.


All solar power systems work on the same basic principles. Solar panels first convert solar energy into DC power which can be stored in a battery or converted by a power inverter into AC power which can be used to run home appliances. Depending on the type of system excess solar energy can also be fed into the electricity grid to provide credits and further reduce electricity costs.



The three main types of solar photovoltaic system


a. On-grid - also known as a grid-tie or grid-feed solar system


On-grid or grid-tie solar systems are by far the most common and widely used by homes and businesses. These systems do not need batteries and use common solar inverters and are connected to the public electricity grid. Any excess solar power that you generate is exported to the electricity grid and you usually get paid a feed-in-tariff (FiT) or credits for the energy you export.



b. Off-grid - also known as a stand-alone power system (SAPS)


An off-grid system is not connected to the electricity grid and therefore requires battery storage. An off-grid solar system must be designed appropriately so that it will generate enough power throughout the year and have enough battery capacity to meet the home’s requirements, even in the depths of winter when there is less sunlight.



c. Hybrid - solar plus battery storage with grid-connection


Modern hybrid systems combine solar and battery storage in one and are now available in many different forms and configurations. Due to the decreasing cost of battery storage, systems that are already connected to the electricity grid can start taking advantage of battery storage as well.




Some of the major application of solar energy


(a)Solar water heating


A solar water heating unit comprises a blackened flat plate metal collector with an associated metal tubing facing the general direction of the sun. The plate collector has a transparent glass cover above and a layer of thermal insulation beneath it.



(b) Solar heating of buildings 


Solar energy can be used for space heating of buildings. Collecting the solar radiation by some element of the building itself; Using separate solar collectors which may heat either water or air or stor­age devices which can accumulate the collected solar energy for use at night and during inclement days.


When the building requires heat then from these collectors or storage devices, the heat is transferred by conventional equipment such as fan, ducts, air out­lets, radiators and hot air registers etc. to warm up the living spaces of a build­ing.


Others include: (c) Solar distillation (d) Solar pumping (e) Solar drying of agricultural and animal products (f) Solar furnaces (g) Solar cooking (h) Solar electric power generation (i) Solar thermal power production (j) Solar green houses.


As a clean and green source, solar photovoltaic energyshould be better developed to promote quality of life.  A solar charge controller manages the power going into the battery bank from the solar array.  It ensures that the deep cycle batteries are not overcharged during the day, and that the power doesn’t run backwards to the solar panels overnight and drain the batteries. Some charge controllers are available with additional capabilities, like lighting and load control, but managing the power is its primary job.



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