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What is A Solar Controller?

Views:49     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2020-01-01      Origin:Site


The full name of the solar controller is a solar charge and discharge controller, which is an automatic control device used in a solar power generation system to control the charging of the battery by the multi-channel solar battery array and the supply of the battery to the solar power inverter load. It regulates the charging and discharging conditions of the battery, and controls the power output of the solar cell module and the battery to the load according to the power demand of the load, which is the core control part of the entire photovoltaic power supply system.



About solar control system


The solar control system consists of solar panels, batteries, controllers and loads, which is designed for powering systems of communications or surveillance equipment in remote areas. The controller's charge control and load control voltage are fully adjustable and it can display battery voltage, load voltage, solar array voltage, charge current and load current.


Almost all solar power systems powered by batteries are in great need of a solar charge and discharge controller. The role of the solar charge and discharge controller is to regulate the power delivered from the solar panel to the battery. Battery overshoot reduces battery life significantly and even damages the battery until it is not working properly.


The solar controller uses a high-speed CPU microprocessor and a high-precision A/D analog-to-digital power converter, which is a microcomputer data acquisition and monitoring control system. It can collect the current working state of the PV system quickly and accurately, obtain the working information of the PV station at any time, and accumulate the historical data of the PV station in detail, which provides an accurate evaluation about the rationality of the PV system design and the reliability about the quality of the system components. In addition, the solar controller also has a serial communication data transmission function, which can centrally manage and remotely control multiple PV system substations.


At present, the controller is developing toward multi-function, and there is a tendency to integrate the conventional control part, the power inverter, and the monitoring system.



The role of solar control systems


The most basic function of the solar charge and discharge controller is to control the battery voltage and open the circuit. In addition, when the battery voltage rises to a certain level, the battery charging is stopped. The old version of the controller mechanically completes the opening or closing of the control circuit, stopping or starting the power delivered to the battery by the power source.


Controllers are used in most photovoltaic systems to protect the battery from overcharging or overdischarging. Overcharging may vaporize the electrolyte in the battery, which causes malfunction. Over-discharge of the battery can cause premature battery failure. Overcharge and overdischarge both can damage the load. Therefore, the controller is one of the core components of the photovoltaic power generation system and the main part of the balance system.


In summary, the role of solar controllers can be divided into the following three aspects.

1.Power adjustment function.

2.Communication function. This is divided into simple indication function and protocol communication function, such as RS485 Ethernet, wireless and other forms of background management.

3.Perfect protection function. This refers to electrical protection reverse connection, short circuit, over current, etc.


Do you have a more comprehensive understanding of solar controllers now? If you still have any questions, please feel free to contact us.



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